Browse The Subsequent Write-up To Learn About Pay Day Loans

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Often we can all use a little support financially. If you discover your self with a monetary issue, and you also don’t know the best places to change, you can get a cash advance. A payday advance can be a short-phrase financial loan that you can receive swiftly. You will discover a bit more involved, and they ideas can help you comprehend further regarding what these personal loans are about.

Pay day loans may help in an emergency, but recognize that one could be billed financing charges that could mean virtually one half attention. This big monthly interest can certainly make paying back these personal loans out of the question. The amount of money is going to be deducted from your salary and may force you appropriate into the pay day loan business office for additional dollars.

If you are considering a payday advance, there are several things that you need to have to be able to be eligible. You need a banking account, along with be established within your career. Most payday cash loans need at the very least three months of constant work, before that loan can be produced.

When wanting to accomplish a payday advance as with all buy, it is prudent to spend some time to shop around. Various locations have ideas that change on interest levels, and appropriate types of security.Try to look for financing that works well to your advantage.

Before getting a pay day loan, it is essential that you find out in the several types of available so that you know, which are the best for you. Particular payday loans have different guidelines or demands than the others, so look on the web to figure out what type fits your needs.

Sign up for your pay day loan initial thing within the day. Many financial institutions have got a strict quota on the volume of pay day loans they are able to supply on any given day time. If the quota is hit, they close up go shopping, and you also are out of luck. Get there earlier to prevent this.

When you have a good credit score, make application for a lower charge payday loan. This sort of loan usually has lower interest levels, with no invisible charges. The financial institution must check out your credit score. This should not get greater than round the clock and should be your best option, if your credit ranking is not really also very low.

Before applying for the payday loan have your documents in order this will aid the borrowed funds organization, they may need proof of your income, to allow them to assess your capability to pay for the borrowed funds back. Handle things such as your W-2 kind from operate, alimony monthly payments or evidence you are getting Interpersonal Safety. Get the best circumstance easy for oneself with proper records.

If you believe you have been used benefit of from a payday advance firm, report it instantly for your status government. Should you delay, you could be damaging your probabilities for any type of recompense. At the same time, there are several people out there as if you that want real support. Your reporting of the poor organizations will keep others from having comparable circumstances.

In the event you need to take out a payday loan be sure that the costs is going to be lower than a overdraft account payment. Should you be looking at experiencing quite a few bills coming by way of without any cash, then this payday advance is best. Should it be just one bill, it could be better to take the overdraft cost.

Before you sign on the dotted collection to get a pay day loan, check with your neighborhood Far better Company Bureau initial. Make certain the company you take care of is respected and snacks buyers with respect. Many companies around are providing payday loan organizations an incredibly bad status, so you don’t want to turn into a fact.

A lot of payday loan creditors will advertise that they may not deny the application because of your credit rating. Many times, this can be right. Even so, be sure you look into the level of curiosity, they may be recharging you. The rates will be different according to your credit rating. If your credit history is awful, prepare yourself for an increased rate of interest.

Be aware of the legislation. Visualize you take out a payday advance to be repaid with by the after that pay time period. If you do not pay for the loan back again promptly, the financial institution can make use of how the examine you employed as security no matter if you will have the cash in your bank account or not. Outside your bounced examine charges, there are actually says where the lender can assert 3 times the quantity of your unique examine.

Now you have a much better notion of whatever you can count on from your payday loan. Consider it carefully and strive to technique it coming from a relax standpoint. Should you decide that a cash advance is for you, take advantage of the suggestions in this article to help you get around the process effortlessly.

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It can be hard to handle the pressure of the fiscal combine. You have to try to alleviate on your own of several of your anxieties. If payday cash loans are one thing you will be considering, read on so you are equipped to help make the proper determination.
Some payday advance garments may find artistic means of working close to diverse consumer defense legal guidelines. Curiosity disguised as costs is going to be attached to the lending options. This might amount to over ten times the volume of an average personal loan which you would acquire.
By taking out a pay day loan, ensure that you is able to afford to spend it again within one to two weeks. Pay day loans ought to be utilized only in urgent matters, once you genuinely have no other alternatives. Once you obtain a cash advance, and are not able to shell out it back again straight away, two things occur. Initially, you must spend a payment to hold re-extending your loan up until you can pay it off. Secondly, you keep obtaining charged increasingly more curiosity.
Prior to going into a cash advance contract, be sure you are aware of all rates, fees and guidelines fully and possess your arrangement in creating. Without this info, you may well be in danger of getting scammed.
You can find state laws, and polices that particularly protect pay day loans. Usually these organizations have found approaches to work close to them legally. Should you do sign up for a pay day loan, tend not to feel that you will be able to get from it without paying it away 100 %.
Make sure you pick your payday advance meticulously. You should think of just how long you will be provided to repay the loan and precisely what the rates are like before choosing your payday loan. See what your greatest choices are and make your choice to avoid wasting funds.
Make sure that you know how, and once you can expect to repay the loan even before you buy it. Have the personal loan payment did the trick to your price range for your forthcoming pay times. Then you can definitely assure you pay the cash back. If you cannot reimburse it, you will definitely get trapped paying out financing extension payment, on the top of extra fascination.
If you want a payday loan, but have a bad credit historical past, you might like to look at a no-fax bank loan. This type of financial loan is the same as almost every other cash advance, although you will not be asked to fax in almost any paperwork for acceptance. Financing where by no papers are participating implies no credit verify, and chances that you are approved.
Browse the payday loan commitment word for expression before signing it. The tiny produce on these contracts usually shows hidden costs, such as administration costs, that you simply aren’t aware of except if you appearance. Once the because of particular date will come all around, you don’t wish to instantly pay for products which you had been not anticipating.
Try to find a payday loan company that offers lending options to people with a low credit score. These lending options are based on your career situation, and potential to repay the money as opposed to relying upon your credit. Acquiring this sort of money advance will also help anyone to re-create good credit score. When you comply with the relation to the arrangement, and spend it back on time.
When you’re striving to apply for payday cash loans, you have to supply the loan company various telephone numbers. They want your own home variety, cellular along with the variety for your function. As well as these phone numbers, most loan providers may also require a few additional personal recommendations.
After reading this advice, you have to know far more about payday loans, and just how they operate. You must also know of the frequent traps, and problems that people can deal with, if they take out a pay day loan without having done any their research initial. With all the advice you have read on this page, you will be able to have the money you need without stepping into much more issues.

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With this difficult economic times, it can be challenging the money you want. A lot of people would like to know what choices they already have when emergencies arise. Many people think about getting a pay day loan. Nevertheless, prior to making this selection, it’s vital you know all you should know about payday loans. Read on for some methods to learn if it is the right point for you.

Discover once you must repay the money. Interest levels for payday cash loans are normally quite high. Later costs are even higher. For this reason, it is crucial that you will be making all payments on or just before their expected particular date.

If you must make use of a payday advance because of a crisis, or unexpected celebration, realize that most people are put in an unfavorable placement as a result. Should you not make use of them responsibly, you could wind up within a routine which you cannot escape. You can be in personal debt to the payday loan organization for a long time.

Before you apply for any cash advance have your forms so as this will aid the borrowed funds company, they will require evidence of your wages, to enable them to determine what you can do to cover the money rear. Take things such as your W-2 type from job, alimony monthly payments or evidence you happen to be receiving Social Protection. Make the most efficient circumstance feasible for oneself with correct paperwork.

Before taking out that cash advance, be sure to do not have other alternatives available. Payday loans could cost you a lot in fees, so some other option might be a far better remedy to your overall financial situation. Look for your pals, household as well as your financial institution and lending institution to find out if you will find every other possible options you could make.

Generally read the fine print for a payday advance. Some companies demand costs or a fees when you pay the loan back again very early. Others charge a fee when you have to roll the money over to the next spend period of time. They are the most typical, nevertheless they might charge other secret fees or perhaps improve the interest should you not shell out by the due date.

Discover the default payment plan for that loan company you are thinking about. You may find yourself without having the cash you have to pay off it after it is thanks. The financial institution may offer you the choice to spend merely the fascination sum. This will likely roll over your obtained quantity for the following two weeks. You will be liable to pay for another curiosity charge the subsequent paycheck plus the debts owed.

Investigation payday loan companies. Some of them will charge you excessive service fees and extremely high insurance premiums. Search online to research the firm well that you are interested in doing business with. Check out their information using the Better Organization Bureau, and be sure the organization did productive organization for many years. This will minimize the possibility which you become a victim of payday loan con artists.

When confronted with a pay day lender, keep in mind how securely governed they can be. Interest levels tend to be officially capped at varying level’s express by condition. Determine what responsibilities they have got and what individual legal rights that you may have as a client. Have the contact info for regulating govt offices helpful.

Should you be obtaining a payday advance online, ensure that you get in touch with and speak with a broker prior to coming into any information in to the internet site. Numerous scammers pretend to be payday loan organizations in order to get your hard earned money, so you should make certain you can reach a real individual.

Should you ever ask for a supervisor in a paycheck loan company, make certain they are actually a supervisor. Payday loan providers, like other organizations, at times just have one more colleague can come over to be a fresh face to clean over a circumstance. Question in case they have the energy to create up the preliminary employee. Otherwise, they can be both not really a supervisor, or supervisors there do not possess very much strength. Immediately requesting a supervisor, is usually a far better strategy.

If you locate yourself in a situation with several online payday loans, will not attempt to combine them in to a greater bank loan. If you are having difficulties to pay back loans that are small, they will battle even more challenging to make greater payments. Try to pay off small loans as soon as possible.

Make certain that the organization you might be intending to work with is not gonna charge you any concealed charges. Look for establishments that have a very good status, along with about five years inside the industry. This easy step is a simple way of preventing many of the most frequent loan cons.

The best tip available for using payday cash loans is usually to never have to make use of them. Should you be struggling with your bills and could not make stops meet up with, pay day loans will not be the right way to get back in line. Try creating a budget and conserving a few bucks in order to avoid using most of these loans.

The recommendation presented on this page must come in useful if you wish to sign up for a pay day loan. Pay day loans are by no means a first choice when you need money, but they might be useful in a distressed condition. Use the ideas in this article if you’re contemplating a payday loan.

Tips To Lead You To The Most Effective Payday Loan

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In today’s world of speedy conversing salesclerks and scams, you ought to be an informed consumer, mindful of the facts. If you realise yourself within a fiscal crunch, and requiring a quick payday advance, continue reading. The subsequent post are able to offer assistance, and suggestions you should know.

When attempting to obtain a cash advance just like any obtain, it is advisable to take the time to research prices. Diverse areas have plans that differ on rates, and satisfactory sorts of equity.Try to look for that loan that actually works to your advantage.

Usually do not just brain for the very first payday advance business you afflict see alongside your day-to-day drive. While you can certainly find them, it can be to your advantage to try and discover individuals with the lowest costs. A bit groundwork can save you a ton of money.

The costs billed by a loan provider have to be realized before you apply. You do not need to be surpised at the high rates of interest. Always check with any questions you might have about the tip of your mouth.

Even though cash advance businesses will not do a credit rating check, you need to have a lively bank account. Most paycheck loan providers want to perhaps you have approve intelligent primary payments that come from the borrower’s bank account when the financial loan is due. It will probably be withdrawn as soon as your salary is planned being transferred.

Be sure to can pay your payday advance back again within 3 weeks. In the event you will be unable to live up to the regards to the borrowed funds and want more money, then take into account additional options. It can be possible to get other lenders who can provide you with more hours to repay the loan.

In case you are thinking that you might have to go into default on a payday loan, you better think again. The loan organizations acquire a substantial amount of information from you about things like your boss, plus your deal with. They may harass you constantly until you have the financial loan repaid. It is far better to acquire from loved ones, promote stuff, or do whatever else it takes to simply spend the money for financial loan away, and go forward.

When you discover a excellent payday advance company, stick with them. Allow it to be your primary goal to build a track record of productive loans, and repayments. As a result, you might become qualified for even bigger financial loans down the road using this type of company. They could be much more ready to use you, during times of genuine battle.

Make certain you browse the regulations and regards to your pay day loan carefully, in an attempt to avoid any unsuspected unexpected situations in the foreseeable future. You must understand the entire financial loan contract prior to signing it and receive your loan. This should help you produce a better choice with regards to which financial loan you should acknowledge.

The simplest way to utilize a cash advance is to shell out it in whole as quickly as possible. The charges, attention, along with other costs associated with these loans can cause important debt, that may be extremely difficult to settle. So when you are able pay the loan off, undertake it and you should not increase it.

Ensure that you browse the guidelines and regards to your cash advance meticulously, so as to stay away from any unsuspected surprises later on. You need to know the entire bank loan commitment prior to signing it and receive the loan. This will help create a better choice with regards to which loan you must acknowledge.

When you are thinking getting a payday loan, think about the price. There are times you might need the amount of money despite the expense of paying it again. You can aquire a cash advance to get a little sum, typically from close to 100 money to about a huge. These-full week financial loans feature “curiosity” (as origination costs) that figure to 15-30Per cent of your quantity borrowed. If you fail to work the fascination and charges into your price range, you probably do not want to get a payday advance.

When getting a payday advance, it is essential that you seek information. You do not desire to blindly think an advertisement, simply because you usually are not obtaining the entire story. Speak with people who have got out this type of personal loan, or read a number of the firm evaluations on the net.

Since you now took time to learn through these suggestions and knowledge, you are better equipped to make your decision. The pay day loan may be just what you needed to pay for your crisis dentistry function, or even to fix your car. It could help save from a awful condition. It is important to use the information you learned on this page, for top level bank loan.

Teaching Yourself To Play Football? Utilize These Great Tips

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To learn how to turn into a far better gamer, get some useful tips. It is possible to turn into a excellent player in case you are fervent and exercise a lot. Read on to find out some good info you can put in training these days.

Bear in mind that you may have a part around the group, whether you are an organic perform producer or perhaps not. A lot of people basically make points occur in the discipline. If you do not have that skill, it is possible to behave as a assist to people that have different expertise than you need to do. Determine what your part is and play for your strong points.

If you possess the tennis ball so you see available room, shift in the direction of it. You need to take a defender in to you, so the area opens for one of the teammates. As being the defender receives nearer, move the ball to a person that is in the better position than you. Ideally, they are going to credit score !

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Shielding is really a football talent. Training with another individual, and check out dribbling the ball around within a sq .. Let the body else to try to use the golf ball apart. To be successful, ensure that your entire body remains between your challenger as well as the soccer ball. The more you practice, the better you will certainly be within the game.

Range working through the off year is fantastic for football education. Numerous participants will manage at the very least 8 kilometers during the activity. If you train you to ultimately manage excellent miles, you improve your energy tenfold, that can boost your video game.

Training transferring by placing two modest cones approximately a ft . separate. Strike the ball from the obstructions that will help you learn how to move involving adversaries and obtain it for your teammate. As you grow better around this transferring method opt for longer passes and shift the cones better together.

Make sure that you stretch equally before and after a football online game or process. Working up and down the area coupled with kicking the golf ball, can place a great deal of anxiety on the muscle tissue. Stretching out can help you to steer clear of injuries on the discipline while you are enjoying and stop you from getting tender once the video game.

Consider taking part in soccer inside on occasion rather than outside. In the house will generally be a more compact field than you are utilized to. It may help you work towards making decisions more quickly and much better ball dealing with. Once you relocate your game to outside the house, you’ll see that those skills have enhanced.

Should you be kicking the soccer ball and you also recognize a person working in your direction, tend not to anxiety. There is a really easy method of staying away from them. Very first, strike the tennis ball to a single aspect of the body. Once you accomplish this, swiftly kick the ball for the other side. If you do this quick enough, you may avoid your challenger and be prior to them. As a result, you will end up much better able to report.

Practice like it is an true game. You are unable to discover how to take under tension if you generally training casually. To help you improve the chances of you accomplishment during an genuine video game, gather a group of friends together and rehearse like it really is a genuine activity. Phone exactly the same has when you would within an genuine video game and check out as challenging as you would in an actual video game.

Learn the talent of your toss-in. This is one of the greatest odds to rating an ambition considering that the thrower has higher control over the golf ball. You must use both of your hands and the golf ball need to go behind your head for the correct have. This is a great time try using a proper engage in to create a person near to the aim.

Constantly heat up your own muscles and stretch out prior to a game. This helps protect against damage and will keep you fresh and nimble. One of the most common personal injuries is actually a hamstring strain. The hamstring can be found appropriate over the leg on the back of your leg. You will be surprised at how straightforward a physical injury can occur if you don’t extend the muscles prior to a game.

As you now are finished reading the recommendation, try getting around the field and placing it to utilize. You happen to be motivated, and that will show around the industry. This video game is very fun but calls for a great deal of process.

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Athens – What To See And How To See It


There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.


Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi


Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.


The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena


Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.


Ancient History – Athens


Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).